UHPC Recipe & Resources
What is UHPC?
Ultra-high performance concrete is an innovative concrete technology that is rapidly gaining momentum throughout the world. With a compressive strength of at least 150 MPa (21.7 ksi), the component materials self-consolidate to yield extremely high durability and mechanical properties. UHPC is reinforced by steel fibers, which enhance the material’s tensile strength and energy dissipation capacity.
What is open recipe UHPC?
Unlike proprietary UHPC, which has a closed or protected formula, the recipe and mixing methodology for open recipe UHPC are published (known) and conducive to further development by others (i.e. open). The concept of open development is well known in software engineering and has led to rapid and broad innovations that would have otherwise been stymied if open software had been closed to generic users and developers.
We offer our open recipe UHPC formula for others to build upon. The formula is based upon long experience with UHPC technology and yields a high quality UHPC material with excellent fresh and hardened properties. Our numerous technical publications over the past 15 years (see below) document how we reached this formula and provide material properties of the resulting UHPC.
Like its commercial counterpart, generic UHPC can achieve exceptional short term and long term properties.
- Compressive strength in the 170-200 MPa (25-30 ksi) range
- Direct tensile cracking strength of 7-12 MPa (1-1.7 ksi)
- Direct tensile peak strength of 8-24 MPa (1.2-3.5 ksi)
- Negligible exposed surface mass loss (g/cm²) after more than 100 freeze thaw cycles
- Negligible passed charge (coulombs) in a rapid chloride penetration test
- Extremely small autogenous shrinkage
UHPC derives its unique properties from its high packing density, which is achieved by carefully controlling the size and distribution of the constituent particles, and incorporating steel fibers. The uniformity of the matrix results in a discontinuous pore structure, which prevents water from entering the material, leading to its exceptional durability properties.
Figure above: comparison between regular concrete and UHPC. Note the uniform nature of UHPC.
Watch a video of compression test below
Nonproprietary UHPC is made of ordinary Portland Type I cement, ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) cement (slag cement), silica fume, two types of silica sand and short steel fibers. To ensure workability, a superplasticizer is used. Optimum packing density of the particles is achieved as discussed in “How is High Packing Density Achieved?” The mix proportions by weight of a generic UHPC mix are shown in the table. Note that the weight of Portland Cement + Ground Granulated Blast Slag Cement = 1.0 and that all other components are scaled to this.
Table: Mixed proportions by weight of cement (OPC+GGBS = 1.0)
White Portland Type I cement was used in the early development of generic UHPC due to its low tricalcium aluminate (C3A) and the high combination of di- and tricalcium silicate (C2S+C3S) resulting in exceptional performance in the fresh and hardened states. However, white cement is expensive (at $275 per ton [2019 price]). Research has shown that ordinary Portland cement Type I, which is much cheaper (at $150 per ton [2019 price]), can be successfully used. In general, the selected cement must have a tricalcium aluminate (C3A) content lower than 8% and a relatively low Blaine fineness to reduce water demand during the hydration. Many suppliers in the US can meet this requirement.
Silica fume is a by-product of the production of silicon alloys. The superfine spherical particles and pozzolanic reactivity densify the microstructure and significantly improve the compressive strength of UHPC. The median particle size is in the range of 0.1 to 10 microns. A lower carbon content is preferred because that decreases the water demand while promoting high flowability. Eliminating the coarse aggregate promotes high compressive strength. Instead of coarse aggregate, two types of quartz silica sand are used, with grain sizes of 70–200 μm and 400–800 μm. These grain sizes are optimized to enhance packing density.
Unlike regular concrete, UHPC uses a lot of cement, which increases costs and has environmental and ecological burden. It also has a negative impact on the hydration heat, which can lead to shrinkage problems. Therefore, slag cement (GGBS) is commonly added to make the mixes more environmentally friendly since GGBS is a byproduct of the steel making industry. GGBS is a beneficial mineral mixture for concrete because of its pozzolanic property and is known to positively affect the durability of concrete materials.
A polycarboxylate-based high range water reducers (HRWR), also known as superplasticizer, is used in UHPC mixture designs. Also, steel fibers with high strength (>2000MPa [>290 ksi] yield strength) are employed. Steel fibers are generally 0.2 – 0.3 mm in diameter and 13 mm – 25 mm in length.
About High Packing Denisty
How Is High Packing Density Acheived?
Packing theory is the basic method used for developing dense concrete using different sized particles.
Proper application of packing theory can control the fresh and hardened properties of concrete because the improved particulate packing leads to more usable water as a lubricant. The Andreasen and
Andersen (A&A) model is commonly used to design UHPC with various solid constituents and high
fluidity. According to A&A theory, optimal packaging can be achieved when the cumulative particle size
distribution (PSD) obeys the following equation:
where, P(D) is the fraction that can pass a sieve with opening D; Dmax) is the maximum particle size of
the mix. The distribution modulus q has a value between 0 and 1. The Andreasen and Andersen model
doesn’t contain the minimum particle size. To account for that, a modified version of A&A model
suggested by Funk and Dinger is commonly used
where, Dmin accounts for the minimum particle size in the mix. Andreasen and Andersen found that
optimum packing is obtained when q = 0.37. However, for mixtures with a high amount of powders
(<250 μm), a smaller q value is recommended in the range of 0.22∼0.25.
Figure above: Particle gradation in UHPC matches the ‘ideal’ one
What is Strain Hardening?
UHPC has a higher tensile strength than conventional concrete, it also exhibits strain hardening response after initial cracking when properly reinforced with steel fibers. The typical stress strain
curve for UHPC is shown in Figure. In the initial stage, the material’s tensile behavior is elastic, which continues up until the first cracking strength (σcc). Following this, the material then exhibits
strain hardening up until its peak point (σpc). The strain hardening behavior of segment II is typically characterized by multiple cracks development in the gauge length of the specimen.
Figure above: Typical tensile strain response in UHPC
Applications of UPHC
UHPC is used anywhere regular concrete is used. Due to its extreme durability (an order of magnitude greater of that of regular concrete), it is especially effective in harsh environments. The very high strength of UHPC allows regular concrete components to be redesigned, resulting in large weight savings (up to two thirds [67%] reduction in weight). Redesigning structures to take advantage of the unique properties of UHPC usually allows the end structure to be significantly more economical over its lifespan than if it were built with regular concrete.
UHPC can be used in a broad range of products. It is particularly well suited for precast components and systems, such as Precast Bridge Elements and Systems (PBES) and Accelerated Bridge Construction (ABC).
- Bridges: Bridge decks, joints between bridge decks, bridge girders, foundation piles
- Buildings and Garages: Lightweight girders (prestressed and precast), lightweight slabs
(prestressed and precast)
- Lightweight, thin-walled concrete pipes
- Architectural facades
- Outdoor furniture
UHPC used for the closure joints between precast bridge decks
Bond Behavior of Steel Rebars
UHPC has exceptional bond with steel rebars, which allows for an extremely small embedment length.
To get a sense for this excellent performance, bridge closure pours can be reduced in size from 500 mm (20 in) to just 100 mm (4 in). Based on research in, Alkaysi and El-Tawil, an assumed bond stress, τbond, equal to 1.1√f’c (MPa), can be used for estimating the required embedment length in UHPC.
Failure modes observed during pullout of steel rebars embedded in UHPC
Fiber Pullout: An Indicator of Fiber Effectiveness
The bond-slip relationship between fibers and the surrounding matrix directly influences the mechanical properties of the UHPC composite. Bond-slip response is activated when fibers bridge cracks that are trying to open further. The resistance they offer against cracking opening promotes beneficial multiple cracking and strain hardening tensile behavior. However, the fiber-matrix bond characteristics are carefully tailored to the strength of the matrix and the characteristics of the fiber to achieve an optimal UHPC response.
Figure above: (a) Pullout test setup; (b) Pullout performance of Hiper fiber and smooth fiber
How to make UHPC
Generic UHPC is made of the following ingredients:
- Ordinary Portland Type I cement
- Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS) cement (slag cement)
- Silica fume
- Graded silica sand
- Steel fibers
- High Range Water Reducer (HRWR)
- Defoaming agent
The mix proportions of a generic UHPC mix per cubic yard are shown in the table. Four mixes are listed with different amounts of High Range Water Reducers (HRWR).
How to use the Table below: The ability to successfully mix UHPC depends on the type of HRWR you are using and the carbon content of the silica fume. Carbon particles are extremely fine and can increase the water demand, causing mixing problems. The figures below shows three different types of silica fume with different carbon contents (you can tell by the color, the darker it is the greater the carbon content). The best way to find the optimal HRWR dosage is by conducting trial batches. Start with Mix A then work your way up until you achieve the recommended spread. The spread should be between 175 mm (7 in) and 300 mm (12 in). Spread values outside this range indicate that the mix should be rejected. See tab below labeled ‘Spread Test‘.
Table: Mix proportions by weight of cement (OPC+GGBS = 1.0). Weights listed in pounds.
1Mixes A, B, C and D have HRWR dosages of 1.5%, 2%, 2.5% and 3%, respectively
2Grain sizes: 80-200 microns
3Grain sizes 400-800 microns
4Polycarboxylate ether-based high range water reducer
5High range water reducer dosage rates can be adjusted to meet the paste flowability requirements, Dosages range vary with the type of silica fume and range from 1.5% to 3.0% by weight of the cement.
6The steel fibers are 2% by volume.
NOTE: If needed, use a defoaming agent at the rate of 0.5 lb per cubic yard. This will reduce the bubbles that form during vigorous mixing. Typically you would need that in truck mixing. See next section on ‘Truck Mixing‘.
Figure above: Color of silica fume with different carbon content.
Figure above: Silica sands used for the preparation of UHPC
Conventional concrete is generally easy to mix using commonly available mixers and can be conveniently adapted to most construction conditions. However, mixing UHPC requires equipment that provides more energy and shear than regular concrete due to the low water content and high powder content. In general, the expected performance (including fresh and hard-solid properties) of the selected mixture cannot be achieved when low-mix energy mixers are used to mix UHPC. Moreover, use of a low-energy mixer will also increase the turnover time of the mixture, causing the temperature of the mix to rise, which is detrimental to the UHPC mixing process (high temperature delays mix turnover).
UHPC can be mixed in plants that have large capacity pan mixers with multiple mixing paddles. The paddles should have bottom and side scrapers to ensure a good mix result. The mixing process is as follows:
- The silica sand and silica fume are first dry-mixed for about five minutes. Cement and GGBS are added to the mixture and dry-mixed for another five minutes.
- Water and HRWR are first mixed together and then added gradually to the dry material. Premixing the HRWR and water aids in more uniformly distributing the HRWR during mixing. The UHPC mixture shows appropriate workability (turn over) approximately five to seven minutes after the addition of water and HRWR.
- Once an adequate mixture consistency is achieved, the steel fibers are added into the mixer and allowed to mix until the fibers are dispersed
WARNING: Dry mixing silica fume, fine sand and cement can cause dust which when inhaled can lead to silicosis. Appropriate protection equipment must be worn at all times during mixing. A N95 mask and full Tyvek suit are recommended.
Once mixing has concluded, a spread test should be carried out to ensure that the material has mixed appropriately. The spread should be between 175 mm (7 in) and 300 mm (12 in).
Figure above: Precasting plant mixer with multiple paddles. Note the bottom scrapers. The mixer also has side scrapers (not in view)
See video below showing how to mix generic UHPC
UHPC can be successfully mixed in the field using commonly available mortar mixers. One mixer that has worked well is the Mortarman 750 model by Imer. Onsite mixing has special challenges that go beyond plant mixing. We have devised various means to alleviate those challenges.
Field mixers have limited power. UHPC’s viscosity increases dramatically at turnover and the mixer’s engine can labor noticeably at higher mix loads and even stall. To address this limitation, a revised mix procedure can be used that has been shown through research to yield similar fresh and hardened properties as obtained from the original mix protocol. The new mixing process is shown schematically below and is as follows:
- Dry mix cement, GGBS, silica fume, and a portion of the silica sands for 5 minutes.
- Add water and superplasticizer till turnover and formation of thick slurry.
- Incorporate remaining silica sands gradually and mix another 5 minutes.
- Add fibers and continue to mix until fluidity is optimized (between 5 and 8 minutes).
Hot Weather Mixing: Mixing and casting UHPC on a warm day leads to two complications:
- A reduction in the spread (flowability) because the excessive temperature compromises the
effectiveness of the HRWR, and
- The potential for evaporation of water during mixing and placement.
To address the former, it is recommended that about 40% of the mix water should be replaced with ice. Substantially hotter days will require greater ice quantities, which can be ascertained by trial and error. The objective is to cool the mix to less than 85 °F to ensure effectiveness of the superplasticizer. The latter issue can only be resolved by speeding up the mixing and placing processes.
WARNING: Dry mixing silica fume, fine sand and cement can cause dust which when inhaled can lead to silicosis. Appropriate protection equipment must be worn at all times during mixing. A N95 mask and full Tyvek suit are recommended
Figure above: Mortarman 750 mixer by Imer suitable for mixing UHPC onsite
Figure above: Field mixing process
Figure above: Revised mixing process to reduce burden on field mixer.
UHPC can be successfully mixed in a common ready mix truck. We have had good experience mixing up to 4 cubic yards in a mixer with a spiral mixing rib (see pictures below). For truck mixing, it is recommended to use a high level of high range water reducer (HRWR) to facilitate successful mixing, i.e. Mix D in the section ‘Ingredients‘ above.
Mix Proportions for a Cubic Yard of UHPC
Cement (Portland Type I): 653 lb
Slag Cement (GGBS 100): 653 lb
Silica fume: 327 lb
Water: 264 lb = 31.6 gallons
HRWR (3% Sika): 39.19 lb (550 oz)
Steel fibers (2%): 265 lb
Fine sand 1: 395 lb
Fine sand 2: 1580 lb
Defoaming agent: 0.5 lb
Dry mix: 5-10 minutes
Add water and HRWR over 2 minutes
Wait for turnover (fluidity), which usually occurs within 15 minutes
Mix another 10 minutes after turnover.
Add fibers gradually over 2 minutes
Mix for 15 minutes then cast.
Reach out to us for recommended material suppliers in the US.
7 day strength (including 2 day hot water curing): 24,970 ksi
Figure above: General view showing truck being loaded with dry mix components. Courtesy: Clare County Road Commission
Figure above: Addition of steel fibers. Courtesy: Clare County Road Commission
Figure above: Spiral mixing rib. Courtesy: Clare County Road Commission
Figure above: Pouring UHPC after mixing. Courtesy: Clare County Road Commission
Figure above: Measuring spread after mix. Courtesy: Clare County Road Commission
The spread test for freshly mixed UHPC is determined by testing the spread value in accordance with ASTM C1437. After mixing the paste, the fresh mix is placed into a spread cone (see figure). Special care should be taken to keep the spread cone and the base plate at the same humidity level prior to testing. Due to the inherent high flowability of the paste, there is no need to compact the UHPC in the mold and no vibration is required. The spread cone is filled up to the rim and then lifted at a fixed speed. The leftover material sticking to the wall of the cone is scraped off and the material on the base plate is left to spread. After 2 min ± 5 sec has elapsed, the diameter of the spread UHPC paste is measured along two perpendicular directions and the average diameter is calculated and recorded as the spread value.
The spread should be between 175 mm (7 in) and 300 mm (12 in). Spread values outside this range indicate that the mix should be rejected
Figure above: (a) mold used for spread test; (b) spread test results
See below for a video showing how to conduct the spread test
Since UHPC contains a small amount of mixed water, surface drying may affect its hardening properties, so it is important to cover the surface of the specimen with plastic sheets as quickly as possible after pouring to prevent moisture loss. Onsite or laboratory manufactured specimen should be cured according to the ASTM C31/C31M and ASTM C192/C192M, respectively.
If needed, the specimen can be heat treatment for 48 hours after demolding to achieve the desired strength at an early stage. The curing conditions are a temperature of 90 °C (195 °F), and relative humidity of 95%
Approximate market prices in 2019 for the components of open recipe UHPC are shown in the Table below. The cost can be further reduced by using river sand as discussed in the tile below. The cost of UPHC is driven by the price of steel fibers.
Note: The shown steel fiber cost is for imported fibers. Please get in touch with us for the price of fibers that comply with the Buy America Act.
Reducing Cost By Using River Sand
It is entirely feasible to replace silica sand, which is expensive, with natural (river) sand. River sand costs about 1/15 of the cost of silica sand, reducing the cost of the UHPC matrix significantly. Our research has shown that completely replacing silica sand with river sand can result in a viable UHPC. As shown in the figures below, the reason is that the matrix still achieves good packing density (the gradation matches the ideal packing curve). After 48 hours of heat treatment after demolding, the 7-day compressive strength of our specimens was 158.6 MPa (23.0 ksi).
Figure above: Gradations of UHPC mix with natural sand instead of silica sand.
Figure above: Spread from mix with natural sand meets specifications
Higher packing density, and therefore superior properties, can be achieved by replacing a portion of the silica sand with river sand. The results of our experiments show that superior performance can be achieved if just 10% of the total sand content (the rest being natural sand) is fine silica sand where the compressive strength and tensile strength of UHPC are 169.7 MPa (24.6 ksi) and 11.3 MPa (1.6 ksi), respectively
AASHTO GUIDE FOR UHPC BRIDGE DESIGN
In May 2023, AASHTO approved a UHPC bridge design Guide proposed by the FHWA. This Guide will facilitate broader adoption of UHPC by State DOTs and County Road Commissions.
Figure Above: Slide showing annual AASHTO meeting during which Guide was approved AND advantages of the guide.
Example of How Type X HiPer fibers Enhance Performance and Lead to Savings
The new Guide substantially rewards the use of Type X steel fibers for bridge design because they have a much higher localization strain than regular smooth steel fibers. Type X steel fibers can therefore lead to a significant reduction in steel fiber utilization (and hence cost) as shown next.
Figure Above: Savings for a hypothetical bridge when Type X fibers are used. Bridge is based on a actual bridge design with a span of 22 ft.
Advantages of Type X HiPer Fiber when used in AASHTO Design
To ensure greater structural ductility, the AASHTO Guide rewards the use of steel fibers that provide a higher localization strain. The flow of ideas behind the new provisions can be seen below.
Figure Above: Flow of ideas on how Type X HiPer steel fibers lead to substantial savings in design
Videos on UHPC
Technical Papers Co-Authored by Company Employees
Saqif, M.A., Tai, Y-S and El-Tawil, S. (2022), “Experimental and Computational Evaluation of the Ductility of UHPC Beams with Low Steel Reinforcement Ratios,” Accepted for Publication in the Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE.
Hung, C-C, Chao, S-H and El-Tawil, S. (2021), “A Review of Developments and Challenges for the use of UHPC in Structural Engineering: Behavior, Analysis, and Design,” Accepted for Publication in the Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE.
Tai, Y-S, El-Tawil, S., Meng, B. and Hansen, W. (2020), “Parameters influencing fluidity of UHPC and their effect on mechanical and durability properties,” Accepted for Publication in the Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, ASCE
El-Tawil, S., Tai, Y-S., Belcher, J. A., Rogers, D. (2020), “Open-Recipe Ultrahigh Performance Concrete (UHPC): Busting the Cost Myth,” Concrete International, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, June 2020, pp. 33-28.
- Tai, Y-S, El-Tawil, S., Meng, B. and Hansen, W. (2019), “Effects of the high range water reducer and silica fume on mechanical and durability properties of UHPC,” Submitted for publication in the Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, ASCE..
- Tai, Y-S and El-Tawil, S. (2019), “Effect of Component Materials and Mixing Protocol on the Short-Term Performance of Generic Ultra-High-Performance Concrete,” Submitted for publication in the Journal of Construction and Building Materials, Elsevier.
- Tai, Y-S and El-Tawil, S. (2019), “Computational Investigation of Twisted Fiber Pullout from Ultra High Performance Concrete,” Accepted for publication in the Journal of Construction and Building Materials, Elsevier.
- Liu, Z., El-Tawil, S., Hansen, W. and Wang, F. (2018), “Effect of Slag Cement on the Properties of Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC),” Accepted for Publication in the Journal of Construction and Building Materials, Elsevier.
- El-Tawil, S., Tai, Y-S., Belcher, J. A. (2018), “Field Application of Non-Proprietary Ultra-High Performance Concrete: Practical Experiences Gained and Lessons Learned,” Concrete International, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, Jan. 2018, pp. 36-42.
- Tai, Y-S., El-Tawil, S., (2018), “Twisted Fiber Pullout from UHPC: A Computational Study,” Second International Interactive Symposium on Ultra-High Performance Concrete, June 2-5, 2019, Albany, New York
- Tai, Y-S., El-Tawil, S., Belcher, J. A. (2018), “Durability properties of a generic ultra-high performance concrete mixed in the field,” Second International Interactive Symposium on Ultra-High Performance Concrete, June 2-5, 2019, Albany, New York
- Tai, Y-S and El-Tawil, S. (2017), “High loading-rate pullout behavior of inclined deformed steel fibers embedded in ultra-high performance concrete,” Volume 148, Journal of Cement and Concrete Research, Elsevier, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.05.018.
- Alkaysi, M. and El-Tawil, S. (2017), “Factors Affecting Bond Development between Ultra High Performance Concrete and Steel Bar Reinforcement,” Journal of Construction and Building Materials, Elsevier, 144, pp. 412-422, DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.03.091.
- Tai, Y-S., El-Tawil, S. and Chung, T-H. (2017), “Performance of Deformed Steel Fibers Embedded in Ultra-High Performance Concrete Subjected to Various Pullout Rates,” Journal of Cement and Concrete Research, Elsevier, 89(11), pp. 1-13, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2016.07.013.
- El-Tawil, S (2016), “Advances in non-Proprietary UHPC,” National Concrete Consortium, April 2016, Columbus, Ohio.
- Pyo, S., El-Tawil, S. and Naaman, A.E. (2016), “Direct Tensile Behavior of Ultra High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete (UHP-FRC) at High Strain Rates,” Journal of Cement and Concrete Research, Elsevier, DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2016.07.003.
- Pyo, S., Alkaysi, M. and El-Tawil, S. (2016), “Crack Propagation Speed In Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC),” Journal of Construction and Building Materials, Elsevier, 114(1), DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.03.148.
- Alkaysi, M. and El-Tawil, S. (2016), “Effects of Variations in the Mix Constituents of Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC) on Cost and Performance,” Materials and Structures, RILEM, 49: 4185. doi:10.1617/s11527-015-0780-6.
- Alkaysi, M., El-Tawil, S., Liu, Z. and Hansen, W. (2016), “Effects of Silica Powder and Cement Type on Long Term Durability of Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC),” Cement and Concrete Composites, 66, pp. 47-56, doi:10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2015.11.005.
- Wille, K., Xu, M., El-Tawil, S. and Naaman, A.E. (2016), “Dynamic Impact Factors of Strain Hardening UHP-FRC under Direct Tensile Loading at Low Strain Rates,” RILEM Materials and Structures Journal, April 2016, 49(4), pp. 1351–1365, DOI: 10.1617/s11527-015-0581-y.
- Pyo, S., El-Tawil, S. (2015), “Capturing the Strain Hardening and Softening Responses of Cementitious Composites Subjected to Impact Loading,” Journal of Construction and Building Materials, Elsevier, 81(15), April 2015, pp. 276–283, doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.02.028.
- Pyo, S., Wille, K., El-Tawil, S. and Naaman, A.E. (2014), “Strain Rate Dependent Properties of Ultra High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete (UHP-FRC) Under Tension,” J. of Cement and Concrete Composites, Elsevier, 56 (2015), 15-24.
- Wille, K., El-Tawil, S. and Naaman, A.E. (2014), “Properties of Strain Hardening Ultra High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete (UHP-FRC) under Direct Tensile Loading,” Journal of Cement and Concrete Composites, Elsevier, 48, pp. 53-66, doi:10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2013.12.015
- Pyo, S. and El-Tawil, S. (2013), “Crack velocity-dependent dynamic tensile behavior of concrete”, International Journal of Impact Engineering, V55, pp. 63-70, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/ j.ijimpeng.2013.01.003.
- Wille, K., Naaman, A. E. and El-Tawil, S., Parra-Montesinos, G. J. (2012), Ultra-High Performance Concrete and Fiber Reinforced Concrete: Achieving Strength and Ductility without Heat Curing,” Accepted for publication in the RILEM Materials and Structures Journal.
- Wille, K., Naaman, A. E. and El-Tawil, S. (2011), “Optimizing Ultra High Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete,” Concrete International, American Concrete Institute, 33(9), Sept. 2011, pp. 35-41.
- Kim, D-J, Wille, K., El-Tawil, S. and Naaman, A. E. (2011), “A New Impact Test System Using Elastic Strain Energy,” ASCE Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 137(4), pp. 268-275.
- Tai, Y-S, Pan H-H, Kung Y-N (2011), ”Mechanical properties of steel fiber reinforced reactive powder concrete following exposure to high temperature reaching 800°C” Nuclear Engineering and Design, 241(7), 2416-2424.
- Hung, C-C and El-Tawil, S. (2010), “Hybrid Rotating/Fixed-Crack Model for High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composites” Materials Journal of the American Concrete Institute, 107(6), pp. 568-576.
- Kim, D-J, Naaman, A. E. and El-Tawil, S. (2010), “High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites With Innovative Slip Hardening Twisted Steel Fibers” International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, Korean Concrete Institute, ISSN: 1976-0485, 3(2), pp. 119 – 126; DOI 10.4334/IJCSM.2009.3.2.119.
- Sirijaroonchai, K., El-Tawil, S. and Parra-Montesinos, G., (2010), “Behavior of High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites under Multi-Axial Compressive Loading,” Journal of Cement and Concrete Composites, Elsevier, 32 (2010), pp. 62-72, DOI: 10.1016/ j.cemconcomp.2009.09.003.
- Kim, D-J, El-Tawil, S., Sirijaroonchai, K. and Naaman, A. E. (2010), “Numerical Simulation of the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar Test Technique for Concrete Under Compression,” International Journal of Impact Engineering, 37(2), Pages 141-149.
- Kim, D-J, El-Tawil, S. and Naaman, A. E. (2009), “Effect of Matrix Strength on Pull-Out Behavior of High Strength Deformed Steel Fibers,” ACI Special Publication in Honor of Prof. Antoine E. Naaman.
- Kim, D-J, Naaman, A. E. and El-Tawil, S. (2008), “Comparative Flexural Behavior of Four Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composites,” Journal of Cement and Concrete Composites, Elsevier, Vol. 30, November 2008, pp.917-928.
- Kim, D-J, El-Tawil, S. and Naaman, A. E. (2008), “Rate-Dependent Tensile Behavior of High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composites,” Materials and Structures, RILEM, ISSN 1359-5997 (in print), 1871-6873 (online).
- Kim, D-J, El-Tawil, S. and Naaman, A. E. (2008), “Loading Rate Effect on Pullout Behavior of Deformed Fibers,” ACI Materials Journal, 105(6), November-December 2008, pp.576-584
- El-Tawil, S., Tai, Y-S, Meng, B., Hansen, W. and Liu, Z. (2019), Commercial Production of Non Proprietary Ultra High Performance Concrete, Michigan Department of Transportation, Lansing, MI.
- El-Tawil, S., Alkaysi, M., Naaman, A.E., Hansen, W. and Liu, Z. (2016), Development, Characterization and Applications of a Non Proprietary Ultra High Performance Concrete for Highway Bridges, Michigan Department of Transportation, Lansing, MI.
- Tai, Y-S., El-Tawil, S., Belcher, J. A. (2018), “Twisted Fiber Pullout from UHPC: A Computational Study,” Second International Interactive Symposium on Ultra-High Performance Concrete, June 2-5, 2019, Albany, New York
- Tai, Y-S., El-Tawil, S., Belcher, J. A. (2018), “Durability properties of a generic ultra-high performance concrete mixed in the field,” Second International Interactive Symposium on Ultra-High Performance Concrete, June 2-5, 2019, Albany, New York
- Liu, Z., Zhang, X., Wang, F., Hu, C., He, Y., Zhang, Y., El-Tawil, S. and Hansen, W. (2019), “Air Void Characteristics in UHPC and its Relation to Salt Frost Durability,” 2nd International Conference on UHPC Materials and Structures (UHPC2018-China), Fuzhou, China, November 7-10, 2018.
- Alkaysi, M., Pyo, S. and El-Tawil, S. (2016), “Investigation of Crack speed in Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC) Under High Speed Loading Rates,”1st International Interactive Symposium on UHPC, Des Moines, Iowa.
- Alkaysi, M. and El-Tawil, S. (2016), “Effects of Silica Powder and Cement Type on Durability of Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC),”1st International Interactive Symposium on UHPC, Des Moines, Iowa.
- Alkaysi, M. and El-Tawil, S. (2016), “Bond between Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) and Steel Bar Reinforcement,”1st International Interactive Symposium on UHPC, Des Moines, Iowa.
- Alkaysi, M. and El-Tawil, S. (2016), “Bond and Splitting in Bar Pull Out using Ultra High Performance Concrete,”1st International Interactive Symposium on UHPC, Des Moines, Iowa.
- Alkaysi, M. and El-Tawil, S. (2015), “Structural Response of Bridge Deck Joints Made with Generic UHPC”, Proceedings of the ASCE Structures Congress, May 2015, Portland, OR.
- Pyo, S., El-Tawil, S., and Naaman, A.E. (2014), “Characteristics of Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC) under tension at high strain rates,” 2014 Korea Concrete Institute Conference, Seoul, South Korea.
- El-Tawil, S., Pyo, S. and Naaman, A.E. (2014), “High Strain Rate Response of UHPC in Direct Tension,” ACI Fall Convention 2014, Washington, DC.
- Park, P., El-Tawil, S. and Naaman, A. E. (2013), “Indirect Tensile Strength and Toughness of Steel Fiber Reinforced Asphalt Concrete at Low Temperature,” 2013 Conference of the ASCE Engineering Mechanics Institute, August 4 – 7, 2013, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL
- Pyo, S. and El-Tawil, S. (2013), “Dynamic Fracture Mechanics Based DIF Models for Concrete under Tensile Loading,” 2013 Conference of the ASCE Engineering Mechanics Institute, August 4 – 7, 2013, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL
- Pyo, S., El-Tawil, S. and Naaman, A.E. (2013), “Parametric Study of a New Impact Testing System for Ultrahigh Performance Concrete in Tension,” 2013 Conference of the ASCE Engineering Mechanics Institute, August 4 – 7, 2013, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL
- Kim, D. J., Kiet, T. T., El-Tawil, S., and Naaman, A. E. (2012) “Innovative Impact Test System using Elastic Strain Energy,” 4th international conference on design and analysis of protective structures, June 19-22, 2012, in Jeju, Korea
- Chung Chan, H. and El-Tawil, S. (2012), “Use of HPFRC for Sustainable Seismic Hazard Mitigation,” Numerical Modeling Strategies for Sustainable Concrete Structures, SSCS Conference, Aix en Provence, France, May 29th – June 1st, 2012.
- Chung Chan, H. and El-Tawil, S. (2012), “Use of HPFRC for Sustainable Structures: Permanent Damage Reduction in the Aftermath of Earthquakes,” FIB Symposium: Concrete Structures for Sustainable Community, Stockholm, Sweden, June 11th – 14th, 2012.
- Wille, K., El-Tawil, S. and Naaman, A. E. (2011), “Strain Rate Dependent Tensile Behavior of Ultra-High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete,” Proceedings of HPFRCC6, H. W. Reinhardt and G. Parra Editors, Ann Arbor, MI.
- Kim, D-J., Wille, K., Naaman, A. E. and El-Tawil, S. (2011), “Strength Dependent Tensile Behavior of Strain Hardening Fiber Reinforced Concrete,” Proceedings of HPFRCC6, H. W. Reinhardt and G. Parra Editors, Ann Arbor, MI.
- Hung, C-C. and El-Tawil, S. (2010), “Seismic Behavior of a Wall System With High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cementitiouis Composite Coupling Beams,” Proceedings of the ASCE Structures Congress, May 2010, Orlando, Florida.
- Kim, D-J., Naaman, A.E. and El-Tawil, S. (2010), “Correlation between Tensile and Bending Behavior of FRC Composites with Scale Effect,” Proceedings of FraMCoS-7, 7th International Conference on Fracture Mechanics of Concrete and Concrete Structures, May 23-28, 2010, Jeju Island, South Korea
- Hung, C-C and El-Tawil, S. (2010), “Cyclic Model for High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composite Structures,” Proceedings of the ATC-SEI conference, Improving the Seismic Performance of Existing Buildings and Other Structures, December 9-11, 2009 San Francisco, CA.
- Hung, C-C and El-Tawil, S. (2010), “Performance of an 18-Story Coupled Wall System with High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composite (HPFRCC) Coupling Beams,” 9th US National & 10th Canadian Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Toronto, CA.
- El-Tawil, S., Kim, D-J. and Naaman, A. E. (2009) “Impact Testing Using Elastic Strain Energy”, Proceedings of the 2009 NSF Engineering Research and Innovation Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii.
- Hung, C. C., and El-Tawil, S. (2009), “Development of a numerical material model for high performance fiber reinforced cementitious composites for structural component simulation,” ATC/SEI 2009 Conference on Improving the Seismic Performance of Existing Buildings and Other Structures, San Francisco, CA, 2009.
- Suwannakarn, S., Naaman, A. E. and El-Tawil, S. (2008), “Stress Versus Crack Opening Displacement Response of FRC Composites with Different Fibers,” 7th RILEM International Symposium on Fiber Reinforced Concrete Design and Applications, Chennai, India, Sept. 17-19, 2008.
- Kim, D-J., Naaman, A. E. and El-Tawil, S. (2008) “Comparative flexural behavior of four fiber reinforced cementitious composites”, 7th RILEM International Symposium on Fiber Reinforced Concrete Design and Applications, Chennai, India, Sept. 17-19, 2008.
- Kim, D-J, Naaman, A. E. and El-Tawil, S. (2008), “High Tensile Strength Strain-Hardening FRC Composites with Less Than 2% Fiber Content,” Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Ultra High Performance Concrete, March 05 – 07, 2008, Kassel, Germany.
- Sirijaroonchai, K. and El-Tawil, S. (2007), “Three Dimensional Plasticity Model for High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites,” , Proceedings of HPFRCC5, H. W. Reinhardt and A.E. Naaman Editors, July 10-13, Mainz, Germany.
- Suwannakarn, S., El-Tawil, S. and Naaman, A. E. (2007), “Experimental Observations on the Tensile Response of Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites with Different Fibers”, Proceedings of HPFRCC5, H. W. Reinhardt and A.E. Naaman Editors, July 10-13, Mainz, Germany.
- Kim, D-J, El-Tawil, S. and Naaman, A. E. (2007), “Correlation between Single Fiber Pullout and Tensile Response of FRC Composites with High Strength Steel Fibers,” Proceedings of HPFRCC5, H. W. Reinhardt and A.E. Naaman Editors, July 10-13, Mainz, Germany.
- El-Tawil, S. and Sirijaroonchai, K. (2005), “Vehicle Collision with Bridge Piers,” NSF US-Poland Workshop on Analytical Models and New Concepts in Concrete and Masonry Structures, Ustron, Poland, 2005.
HiPer Fiber, LLC was founded in March 2019. Its founding team includes structural, materials and mechanical engineers with more than three decades of combined experience in mixing, casting, and testing concrete and Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC) for structural and non-structural applications.